Nobel, Max Planck, Lenin, and three times the laureate of the Stalin Prize, the Socialist Labor Hero, the member of Danish Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Sciences and Arts (USA), the French Physical Society, a member of the London Physics Society and the London Red Crescent Society, legendary physicist Lev Davidovich Landau, whose name is pronounced along with such great physicist as Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, was born on January 22, 1908 in oil engineer family in Balakhani, Baku.
He was admitted to the gymnasium in Baku in 1916 and at the age of 12 he finished it with excellent marks. Given that he is still too young to study at a high school, his parents have decided that the future physics will continue his education at the Baku Technical School for two years.
In 1922, 14-year-old L. Landau successfully passed the entrance exams to the Azerbaijan State University (nowadays Baku State University) and simultaneously studied at two faculties, physics mathematics and chemistry. But after the first semester he realized that physics and mathematics were more interesting and pleasurable.
Landau first started his academic speeches at the Azerbaijan State University (ADU). Excellent results and excellent results in the exams have made this young man famous at the university and has increased attention to him. The education he received in Baku was the basis of his future scientific searches and achievements, the fundamental and classical innovations brought to theoretical physics, the new style created in physics, and the great school of theoretical physics. Although Landau was very young, he has been sent to the Leningrad (now St. Petersburg), the former Soviet Union’s science center, as a future scholar on theoretical physics. In 1924, 16-year-old Landau was transferred to the Physics-Mathematics Faculty of the Leningrad State University (LDU).
Lev Landau’s first scientific work, “The Theory of Spectrum of diatomic Molecules”, was published in 1926. This scientific work has made him even more famous.
He graduated from LSU in 1927. A 21-year-old doctor has been admitted to the postgraduate study at the Leningrad Institute of Physics and Technology.
In 1929 L. Landau had the opportunity to travel to Europe for the first time. After a short stay in Germany, he went to Copenhagen where he worked at the Niels Bohr’s Institute of Theoretical Physics. Landau has always considered himself to be a Bohr’s student, and has pointed out that Bohr’s has a unique role in his attitude to physics. After Copenhagen, he returned to the Soviet Union.
In 1932-1937 Landau led the Theoretical Physics Department of the Mechanical and Mechanical Institute of Kharkov.
In 1936-1937, Landau created the theory of “Second Phases kind transformations of Phases” and the Theory of “Middle state of highconductors”, and published scientific articles on these problems.
At that time, Landau was widely known as theoretical physicist in the world, and in February 1937 he was invited to the Moscow Institute for Physical Problems and led the department of theory at that institute.
In 1950-1960, Lev Davidovich Landau wrote scientific works in many areas of physics, magnetism, high fluidity, highconductivity, state physics of solids, atomic nucleus and elementary particles, plasma, quantum electrodynamics, hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and lectures at various universities and institutes.
Apart from his scientific achievements, the scientist has also laid the foundations for the leading Landau school of theoretical physics in the former Soviet Union, with the center in Kharkov. The school created by him has given physics such as Lev Pitayevski, Aleksey Abrikosov, Arkadi Levyukuk, Yevgeny Lifshitz, Lev Gorkov, Isak Khalatnikov and Boris Yoffe.
On the 7th of January, 1962, Lev Landau suffered a very serious auto accident. The scientist, who was seriously injured in the accident, spent three months in a coma.
In November 1962, Landau received a telegram about awarding him with the Nobel Prize. For the first time in the history of the Nobel Committee, as the famous physicist L. Landau was unable to attend Stockholm, the Swedish ambassador to Moscow presented his Nobel Prize to the hospital.
Lev Landau spent two years in hospitals, but on January 25, 1964, he could return to his home.
Although Lev Landau was able to save his life as a result of efforts by world scientists, his health was not completely restored. On March 24, 1968, his health was deteriorated and he was taken back to hospital. Despite these efforts, it was impossible to save the life of the founder of Soviet theoretical physics, the famous theoretical physicist Lev Davidovich Landau and he died on April 1, 1968 in Moscow.
“The soul of the scholars is eternal in the temple of science” (Abu Turhran)
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